A method is provided for predicting thermal energy transfer from an entrained particle to a wall surface, the entrained particle being incorporated within a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a flow scenario. Initially, the method generates grid geometry for the CFD model to form a plurality of finite element cells; and establishes initial and boundary conditions for the flow scenario. The model determines a characteristic particle size of the entrained particle; inserts the particle into a cell at an initial location; initializes physical conditions of the particle as a particle state; and calculates a time-step based on characteristic cell size and flow velocity. The model integrates state change in the particle state over the time-step in the cell; and computes collision effect in response to the particle crossing a face of the cell. After convergence, the model quantifies energy flux to the wall surface from impingement by the particle.
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Computation of particle energy from ablation