An RFID localization system includes RFID tags positioned at known locations in a local frame of reference. Each RFID tag generates an RF signal indicative of its unique identity. RF antennas are mounted on a mobile vehicle at known positions/orientations relative to a reference point thereon. Each antenna has a range-bounded field-of-view associated therewith and detects each RF signal generated by any of the RFID tags within its range-bounded field-of-view. A processor coupled to the antennas stores information to include (i) each of the known locations of the RFID tags along with their unique identification, (ii) each known position and orientation of the antennas, and (iii) each range-bounded field-of-view associated with each antenna. The processor implements an evolutionary optimization scheme using the stored information based on each RF signal so-detected in order to determine a position and orientation of the mobile vehicle in the local frame of reference.
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